အလည္လာတာ ေက်းဇူးပါ။ မိတ္ေဆြအားလံုး ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ေသာ မဂၤလာ႐ွိေသာ ေန႔ရက္မ်ားကို ရယူပိုင္ဆိုင္ႏိုင္ပါေစ။

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

ၿပႆနာေဟာင္း ေရာဂါေဟာင္း နဲ႔ ေလာဘအသစ္

***အခုလတ္တေလာ ႀကံဳေတြ႔ေနရတဲ့ ကမၻာစီးပြားေရး ဆုတ္ယုတ္က်ဆင္းမႈဟာ ေလာဘေႀကာင့္ အိမ္ၿခံေၿမ ေစ်းကြက္ထဲ အလြန္အကြ်ံ႕ရင္းႏွီးၿမႈပ္ႏွံမႈက စတင္ၿပီး ဘဏ္ေတြကေန အလြန္အကြ်ံ႕ ေငြထုတ္ေခ်းမႈ၊ စေတာ့ေစ်းကြက္မွာ ကိုယ္က်င့္တရား ပ်က္ၿပားမႈ ၊ အေမရိကန္ နိူင္ငံသားေတြ အသံုးအၿဖဳန္းႀကီးမႈ ေတြကေန တႏြယ္ငင္ တစင္ပါ လိုက္ပါလာတဲ့ ၿပႆနာပါ။ တကယ္ေတာ့ ဒီကိစၥေတြဟာ ၁၉၈၃ ခုႏွစ္ေလာက္က ႀကံဳခဲ့ဘူးတဲ့ ၿပႆနာေဟာင္း ေရာဂါေဟာင္းက ေလာဘအသစ္ေႀကာင့္ ၿပန္လည္ ၿဖစ္ပြားၿခင္းသာ ၿဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒီစာတမ္းက ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ေက်ာင္းမွာ တင္တဲ့ စာတန္းငယ္ပါ။ အလုပ္ႏွစ္ဖက္ ေက်ာင္းတဖက္မို႔ ၿမန္မာဘာသာ ၿပန္ဖို႔ အေၿခအေန မေပးလို႔ ဒီအတိုင္း တင္လိုက္ပါတယ္။ သူငယ္ခ်င္း၊ မိတ္ေဆြအားလံုး နားလည္ ခြင့္လႊတ္ေပးႀကမယ္လို႔ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ပါတယ္။ အမွားပါရင္ လိုအပ္သည္မ်ား ႐ွိရင္လဲ ေထာက္ၿပ ညႊန္ႀကား ေပးႀကပါလို႔ ေၿပာပါရေစ။ ***

In these days, we are facing with the banking and financial crisis. Actually, it is not a new problem. We had solved the similar crisis in late 1980s. Saving loan crisis of late 1980s and early 1990 commonly referred to S&L crisis in the USA. The saving and loans crisis of the late 1980s was the failure of 2412 saving and loans associations (S & Ls) in the US. Saving and loan associations have existed since the 1800. They originally served as community based institutions for saving and mortgage. There is a ceiling interest rate offer to the depositors.

The institutions had much of their money tied up in long-term mortgage loans at fixed interest rates, and with market rates rising, these were worth far less than face value. People withdraw their saving money to the new high-interest money market fund. In late 1970’s, inflation reached such high levels that many S & Ls, which depended on residential mortgages for income, were losing money on fixed-rate loans which had been set up in prior years, and had interest rates well under the rate of inflation. That means the S & Ls were paying their customers to borrow money. Congress allowed the S & Ls to diversify into riskier and more profitable commercial real estate and lending requirements were loosen. CD brokers tried to find the higher interest rate. To get that short-term investment the bank had to give more interest rates turn to lend in riskier investment.

The lack of evaluations of the savings and loan business by public accounting firms, security analysts, and the financial community. At the end of inflation in the American economy, overbuilding real estate values collapsed in the energy states such as Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, particularly due to falling oil price and weakness occurred in the mining and agricultural sectors of the economy. Declining of real estate values on which savings and loan associations had based their loans evaporated. On the other hands, developers were difficult to sell their properties, began falling behind in their loan payments. Fraud and insider transaction abuses were the principals in S & L industries.

Saving loan, business major hurts are fraud and insider transaction abuses, lack of appropriate accounts, security analysis, and financial community, lack of net worth for many institutions as they entered the 1980 and a virtual end of inflation in the American economy. The losses were the result of unmanaged assets and liability gaps that led to interest rate exposures speculative investments in junk bonds and service industries, fraud, and most especially massive losses form lending to and investing in the US commercial real estate sector. That was failure of 2412 saving and loan associations.

According to these experiences, new lines of business signal that need tighter risk management and financial controls. Estimated cost of crisis total amount was $560.1 billions. Out of that government, directly contribute the budget deficits for $324.6 billions which either directly or through changes on their saving or loan account.

5 comments:

ငွက္ကေလး said...

ေဝးးးး ငါ ၁ ကြ


ဦးဟတ္ၾကီးေနာ္ လုပ္ျပီ မ်ားက အဂၤလိပ္လို အဖတ္ခ်င္ပါဘူး ဆုိေနမွရယ္

တတ္သေလာက္ေတာ႔ ဖတ္သြားတယ္ သိပ္နားလည္ဘူးေနာ္

ခင္လြန္းလို႔ ဖတ္သြားတာ ဂ် သိရဲ႔လား ဟြန္းးး

Ko Boyz said...

ခက္တာက ယင္းဂလိပ္လိုဆို သိပ္မဖတ္ခ်င္တ့ဲ အပ်င္းတစ္ ေရာဂါပဲဗ်ာ။ စေတာ့ ဘာညာ၊ အိမ္ၿခံေျမေတြဆိုေတာ့ ကိုယ္န႔ဲ မဆုိင္သလို ေနသြားလိုက္ပါတယ္။

Heartmuseum said...

ငွက္ေလးေရ.... သည္းခံၿပီး ဖတ္ပါဟာ..... ဖတ္မယ့္သူက နင္ပဲ႐ွိတာဟ..... :D :P
Ko Boyz ေရ.... ကိုယ္ခ်င္းစာတယ္ဗ်ိဳ႕.... ကြ်န္ေတာ္လဲ ထိုနည္း၎....... ဘာပဲၿဖစ္ၿဖစ္ လာလည္တာကိုပဲ ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါ၏....... :P

မသက္ဇင္ said...

ကိုဟတ္ေရ
ေလ့လာသြားပါတယ္
ၿခံေတြဝယ္ၿပီးၿပီလား
ခင္မင္လ်က္

Anonymous said...

write about houses. i am your fan.